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Integrated farming concept in Bikol

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Agriculture » Integrated farming concept in Bikol »


  Apr 29, 2009 04:00 AM  
Hosanna "Farm"

anyone into adoptation and practicing the palayamanan concept? I suppose this kind of farming technology is very appropriate for self-sustainable enonomy and development of rural farmers in our area.

download palayamanan pdf here: http://www.openacademy.ph/index.php?option=com_docman&Itemid=146, just look and click for palayamanan icon.


FOREWORD


Recent studies showed that income from one hectare rice monocropping is
insufficient to meet even the financial requirements of a family of five. At
present, it is projected that a farming family should at least earn PhP90,000 or
farm 2 hectares of land to sustain the family’s financial needs. Cognizant to
this, PhilRice has embarked on Palayamanan, a coined term from palay (rice)
and kayamanan (wealth), to help the farmers meet their needs.

Palayamanan is the bahay-kubo concept today but it is elevated to a higher
level of integration. It combines rice with other high-value crops and trees, fish,
poultry, livestock, and biomass recycling. It espouses efficient use of available
farm resources and highlights the interconnectivity between each resource and
by-product through modern available technologies.

Palayamanan is not a new system of farming; it is an old paradigm and has
long been practiced by many farmers. However, despite its benefits both to the
farmers and the environment, it has not been adopted by most farmers because
of the popularity of the monoculture system (rice-rice) and the lack of knowledge
on how to implement it.

This publication shares some ideas on how to integrate the various
components to efficiently use farm resources. It is hoped that through this
publication, we will be able to encourage farmers to embark on Palayamanan to
ensure that food is available on their table, farm productivity is increased, and
soil fertility is sustained.


LEOCADIO S. SEBASTIAN

Executive Director

1



BACKGROUND

Reliving the bahay-kubo concept through Palayamanan ensures food availability
and increases the productivity, profitability, and economic stability of farm families.
Palayamanan is a farming system that highlights the purposive integration of various
farming components such as rice and other crops, livestock, fish, and recycling so
that nothing is wasted; everything in the farm is a precious resource.


Rice is the major component of the system since it is the staple food of the
family and it has low production risks. It is combined with other crops to increase
productivity and income and to provide supplementary food for the family. Adding
a fishpond and raising poultry and livestock do not only increase income, but they
also assure the family a good source of protein and energy. Livestock wastes, on
the other hand are used as organic fertilizer.
Rice straw can be used as mulch for
the vegetable beds and feed
supplement for the livestock.
Overgrown and unmarketed
vegetables are also fed to

animals.

Each Palayamanan
farm is unique since the
diversification and
application of strategies
depend on the farmers’
needs, resources,
financial capacity, and
capability. At the
subsistence level, some
farmers may not have
dramatic increases in
income but food becomes
secure and readily
available. Micro scale
commercial production can be
done as soon as the income of

the system has been stabilized.

With Palayamanan, the output of one component becomes the input of another.

2



THE PALAYAMANAN SYSTEM

BENEFITS


Continuous food supply

Higher income and economic stability

Increased farm productivity and sustainability

Reduced production risk

Maximized use of land or better resource allocation

Enhanced diversity and ecological balance
REQUIREMENTS


Capital - depends on what the farmer wants to integrate first

Farm workers - at least three full-time

Land - ideally, one hectare with the following areas:
I. Residential area (0.05 ha)
. Farmhouse
. Nursery
. Vegetable garden
. Animal production area
. Waste recycling area
II. Field crop production area (0.75 ha)
. Rice-upland crop production area
. Rice-fish culture
. Continuous cash crop production
III. Small Farm Reservoir area (0.20 ha)
. Fresh water fish culture
. Water catchments
. Fruit trees
3



The Palayamanan model farm The Palayamanan model farm
THINGS TO CONSIDER BEFORE ESTABLISHING A PALAYAMANAN FARM


Find out the possible biomass resource (rice straw, animal waste, etc.) in
the farm that can be used to feed animals or improve the farm’s soil quality.

Determine water sources in the area such as rain, pond, shallow tube
well, and national or communal irrigation systems.

Consider topography/landscape of the farm in placing the different
components.

Consider cropping seasons and determine the best cropping system in
planting crops to have high yield (see index for planting calendar).

Know the farm’s soil condition in terms of water holding capacity,
workability, and fertility in determining the crops to be planted.

Integrate livestock, aquaculture, and fruit trees into the farm depending
on capital and food source for the livestock.

Prioritize components based on what is more practical to integrate first,
especially if there is limited budget.
4



STRATEGIES FOR THE DIFFERENT COMPONENTS

1. CROPS
A. Rice area

Plant about half a hectare with
rice to ensure continuous
supply. Special purpose rice
varieties like aromatic or
glutinous rice can also be
planted for added income.



Plant one row of taro along the
perimeter of the rice area and
along the canals.

Plant the bunds with
vegetables such as beans,
okra, eggplant, and pepper.
Controlled irrigation

For lowland areas, practice intermittent irrigation or irrigate only every 7-10
days after transplanting. Furrow drip or skip row irrigation, on the other hand,
can be used for upland crops like vegetables and cash crops. Intermittent irrigation
may not be used when rice–fish integration is implemented.

B. Cash crop and vegetable area
Cash crop production


Plant a variety of crops to reduce pest damage and price fluctuation.

Plant high value crops or cash crops such as onion, melon, cucumber,
squash, and corn during the dry season for more profit.

Plant off-season vegetables such as tomato, eggplant, pepper, string beans
(sitaw), bitter gourd (ampalaya), sponge gourd (patola), and/or okra
during the wet season.
5




Plant open pollinated vegetable varieties to ensure continuous supply of
seeds. Hybrid varieties can also be planted for commercial scale production.

Produce seeds especially when the price of marketable products is low.

Construct permanent raised plots, 1 m wide and 15-20 cm high, so you
can plant vegetables even during the rainy season. Add carbonized rice
hull, compost, animal manure, or other organic materials to the beds to
maintain soil quality. Likewise, use mulch to conserve moisture and control
weeds.

Construct trellises for creeping vegetables such as bitter gourd and sponge
gourd, which are planted along the plots to maximize the area.

Wrap/bag hanging vegetables to protect them from insects. It is safer and
more economical than spraying pesticides.
Vegetable garden


Cover the vegetable garden with a
fine mesh net to protect the plants
from heavy rains and reduce heat
during warmer days.

Plant green leafy vegetables such as
mustard and lettuce to have a ready
source of cash every 30-45 days.

Plant off-season crops such as
tomato and pepper.
Fruit trees area


Plant different kinds of fruit trees
to ensure continuous harvest.

Delay or advance fruit setting to
prevent oversupply in the market
and get higher income.
Use organic mulches such as weeds and rice straw instead of plastic mulch to
conserve moisture, inhibit weed growth, and enhance the reproduction and efficiency
of beneficial soil organisms. Plastic mulch is non-biodegradable, hence its disposal
is a problem.

6



How to Improve Soil Properties

1. Crop Rotation
Plant crops of different species (e.g., rice-onion-rice, rice-

legumes-rice) to enhance the diversity of beneficial organisms

and increase the organic matter in the soil.

2. Fallow Period
Dry plow the field after harvest and let it stay idle for the whole
cropping interval.

3. Minimum or Zero Tillage
Till only the soil that will be planted to preserve the soil

organisms in other parts of the farm. Over tillage destroys soil

structure and leads to soil erosion. Minimum tillage is only

recommended in sandy soil and in sloping areas.

4. Organic Fertilizer Application
Incorporate plant biomass, animal waste, compost, or
commercial organic fertilizers into the soil.

5. Chemical Fertilizer Use
Use chemical fertilizers to supplement organic ones. For rice,
use the Leaf Color Chart (LCC) to determine the timing of
nitrogen application and Minus One Element Technique (MOET)
to check nutrient deficiency.

2. LIVESTOCK

Raise livestock for added income and to add value to farm biomass and
household discards.

Raise fowls such as ducks and chicken to provide immediate cash;
goats, sheep, and pigs to cover intermediate expenses; and large
animals such as cows and carabaos for major household expenditures.
The poultry can be free roaming but ruminants such as cows and goats
need to be grazed or fed with cut-and-carry grass and rice straw.

Adopt the multi-animal single roof system for animal housing because
it is compact, easy to maintain, and it generates good quality organic
fertilizer.
7



Multi-animal Single Roof System
A 50-m2 area of animal shed can house 2 cows, 10 goats, 10 pigs, 50 chicken, and 50 ducks.
!Use mulch beddings made of rice hull or other biomass residues such as
coco dust, sawdust, chopped rice straw, and dried leaves mixed with
carbonized rice hull (CRH) and garden soil . Mulch beds reduce cleaning
and serve as a cooling system for the animals. The beddings mixed with
manure and urine can be used as quality organic fertilizers.
!Make the initial mulch bed about one-foot thick. Put additional bedding
materials when the bed is already moist. Replace the beddings every two
to four months and use them as organic fertilizer for the crops.
!Mix EM microbial inoculant into the beddings and apply it every two
weeks or everytime there is noticeable foul odor. Microbial inoculant
reduces foul smell and facilitates the decomposition of the beddings.
!Use minimal water in bathing the animals to avoid too much moisture in
the pens.
!Add EM microbial inoculant in the animal feed and drinking water to
improve the efficiency of feed conversion and to act as a probiotic
formula against diseases.
Multi-animal Single Roof System
A 50-m2 area of animal shed can house 2 cows, 10 goats, 10 pigs, 50 chicken, and 50 ducks.
!Use mulch beddings made of rice hull or other biomass residues such as
coco dust, sawdust, chopped rice straw, and dried leaves mixed with
carbonized rice hull (CRH) and garden soil . Mulch beds reduce cleaning
and serve as a cooling system for the animals. The beddings mixed with
manure and urine can be used as quality organic fertilizers.
!Make the initial mulch bed about one-foot thick. Put additional bedding
materials when the bed is already moist. Replace the beddings every two
to four months and use them as organic fertilizer for the crops.
!Mix EM microbial inoculant into the beddings and apply it every two
weeks or everytime there is noticeable foul odor. Microbial inoculant
reduces foul smell and facilitates the decomposition of the beddings.
!Use minimal water in bathing the animals to avoid too much moisture in
the pens.
!Add EM microbial inoculant in the animal feed and drinking water to
improve the efficiency of feed conversion and to act as a probiotic
formula against diseases.
A mixture of different animal manure ensures better quality organic fertilizer
that can be used in the crop production system.

8



3. AQUACULTURE

Add a fish culture for
added income and protein
source. Grow tilapia, hito,
and bulig in fresh water,
and bangus, tilapia, clam,
and crab fattening in saline
areas.

For rice-fish culture,
construct a pond refuge
along one of the rice
area’s perimeter. Make it
1/10 of the paddy area
with 1m width and 1m
depth. After transplanting
rice, release one tilapia
fingerling per m2 of rice
area.

Construct fish ponds with
net cages in flood-prone
areas.

Construct small farm
reservoir in rainfed and
upland areas. During the
wet season, this can
impound water that can
be used to irrigate the
crops during the dry
season or whenever
water is scarce.

Grow fish in the small farm reservoir during the wet season.

Plant the perimeter of the small farm reservoir with fruit-bearing trees
such as papaya, mango, jackfruit (langka), and banana for additional
income. Also plant forage crops in between the trees to serve as animal
feed supplement.
Fish in the rice fields do not only help control weeds and insects, but they also
drive away rats from the farm. The movement of fish within the rice field also
disturb the soil and provide some aeration to the rice plant root system.


9



4. BIOMASS WASTE RECYLING

Use farm biomass such as
ricestraw, weeds, and plant
trimmings as feed supplement
for animals. Animals facilitate
the conversion of biomass
waste into quality organic
fertilizer.

Convert household wastes such
as vegetable peeling and food
leftovers and farm biomass into
compost or feed supplements
using EM microbial innoculant.
For more information about EM
microbial innoculant, please
refer to Technology Bulletin #48.



Use carbonized rice hull to condition the soil and to make microbial
innoculant, organic fertilizer, and animal beddings. For more information,
please refer to Technology Bulletin #47.

Practice vermiculture to effectively convert biomass into organic fertilizer.
Grow earthworms in a wooden or plastic box and feed them with animal
manure or pre-decomposed leaves or grass. Vermi-compost is excellent
for vegetable production and home gardening. The earthworms can also
be used as feed ingredient.

Add a mushroom culture for added income. Use rice straw and dried banana
leaves as substrate for the culture.
10



11



Subject Matter Specialists
Madonna C. Casimero, PhD
Rizal G. Corales
Ailon Oliver V. Capistrano

Managing Editor/Desktop Artist

Hazel V. Antonio

Cover/Graphics Design

Eladio M. Avellanoza

Illustrations

Carlito N. Bibal

Editorial Advisers
Leocadio S. Sebastian, PhD
Karen Eloisa T. Barroga
Kathleen D. Solis

For further information, contact:

Philippine Rice Research Institute
Maligaya, Science City of Mu.oz, 3119 Nueva Ecija
Tel. No. (044) 456-0285 local 511, 512


Published 2005 by the Philippine Rice Research Institute.

Readers are encouraged to reproduce the contents of this bulletin with
acknowledgment.


PhilRicePhilRice is a government-owned and controlled corporation attached to the Department of
Agriculture. It was created through Executive Order 1061 dated 5 November 1985 (as amended)
to help develop high-yielding and cost-reducing technologies so farmers can produce enough
rice for all Filipinos.
It accomplishes this mission through research, development and extension (RD&E) through its
central and branch stations coordinating with a network that includes 57 agencies and 70 seed
centers strategically located nationwide.
PhilRice is an ISO14001-certified agency.
Its interdisciplinary programs are the following: (1) direct-seeded and (2) transplanted irrigated
lowland rice; (3) hybrid rice; (4) rice and rice-based products; (5) rice-based farming systems; (6)
policy research and advocacy; and (7) technology promotion. With these
programs, PhilRice develops and promotes technologies that are ecosystem-based, location- and
problem-specific, and profitable to the Filipino farmers.
for more information,
write, visit or call:

Department of Agriculture


Philippine Rice Research Institute


PhilRice Central Experiment Station

Science City of Mu.oz, 3119 Nueva Ecija
Trunklines: 63 (44) 456-0394, -0426, -0649, -0651, -0652
Text: (0920) 9111398
E-mail: prri@philrice.gov.ph
Website: http://www.philrice.gov.ph

PhilRice Batac

Batac, 2906 Ilocos Norte
Tel: (77) 792-4714
Tel/Fax: 792-4702; -2544
E-mail: batac@philrice.gov.ph

PhilRice Isabela

San Mateo, 3318 Isabela
Tel: (78) 664-2280, -2954
Tel/Fax: 664-2953
E-mail: san_mateo@philrice.gov.ph

PhilRice Los Ba.os

UPLB Campus, College, 4031 Laguna
Tel: (49) 536-3631 to 33
Fax: 536-3515; -0484
E-mail: los_banos@philrice.gov.ph

PhilRice Negros

Cansilayan, Murcia, 6129 Negros Occidental
Tel/Fax: (34) 446-3403
E-mail: negros@philrice.gov.ph

PhilRice Agusan

Basilisa, RTRomualdez, 8611 Agusan del Norte
Tel: (85) 818-4477; 343-0778
Tel/Fax: 343-0768
E-mail: agusan@philrice.gov.ph

PhilRice Midsayap

Bual Norte, Midsayap, 9410 North Cotabato
Tel: (64) 229-8178
Tel/Fax: 229-7242
E-mail: midsayap@philrice.gov.ph


As iron sharpens iron, so one man sharpens another. Proverbs 2:17 NIV
-------------------------------------------------------
If the ax is dull and its edge unsharpened, more strength is needed but skill will bring success.
Ecclesiastes 10:10 NIV

  Reply     Top     Bottom     Emoticons  
  May 18, 2010 06:19 AM  
Abegail "Abby"
to hosanna,
ang palayamanan, magandang i-practice sa maporong, oas. Medyo kulang kasi iyong tubig doon for palay. Kausap namin mga women farmers last month doon.

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  Mar 22, 2011 06:45 PM  
guoqing "guoqing"
I was recently telling a woman at the gym how I had cheered for my husband as he ran his first marathon the day before. A woman behind me misheard and thought that I'd said I ran the marathon myself. A few minutes later, she came up to me, looking hockey jersey very concerned. "Did you really run the marathon yesterday?" she asked. "No!" I said, giggling and patting my five-months-pregnant stomach. "No marathons for me nfl jerseys for sale at the moment." Running a marathon pregnant isn't something I'd remotely want to do uggs uk sale right now, mostly because I'm not nearly energetic or motivated enough. But it got me wondering whether I could. Does pregnancy—at any stage—automatically preclude long distance? First things first (and here comes the disclaimer): I am not an expert or a doctor, so if you are pregnant and want to run a marathon, the very first thing to do is to talk to your doctor. That's rbk nhl jerseys what I did. "Yes," she said without hesitating, "women can certainly run marathons while pregnant." But, she told me, there are a few things you need to keep in mind.

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  Jan 25, 2012 10:44 PM  
morgana12 "moy"
Great job on the site, it looks outstanding. I am going to save it and will make sure to check often.portable quiet generatorsKinky

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  Mar 30, 2012 07:58 PM  
he "yang403327474"
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