June 30, 2011 at 9:05 AM #152406
@ TS Bag’o kita mag-poon hapot ko ngun’a saimo con naburat kana?
June 30, 2011 at 2:30 AM #152399
Effects of alcohol on health
Short-term effects of alcohol consumption include intoxication and dehydration.Long-term effects of alcohol include changes in the metabolism of the liver and brain and alcoholism (addiction to alcohol).
Alcohol intoxication affects the brain, causing slurred speech, clumsiness, and delayed reflexes. Alcohol stimulates insulin production, which speeds up glucose metabolism and can result in lowblood sugar, causing irritability and (for diabetics) possible death. Severe alcohol poisoning can be fatal.
A blood alcohol content of .45% in test animals results in a median lethal dose of LD50. This means that .45% is the concentration of blood alcohol that is fatal in 50% of the test subjects. That is about six times the level of ordinary intoxication (0.08%), but vomiting or unconsciousness may occur much sooner in people who have a low tolerance for alcohol. The high tolerance of chronic heavy drinkers may allow some of them to remain conscious at levels above .40%, although serious health dangers are incurred at this level.
Alcohol also limits the production of vasopressin (ADH) from the hypothalamus and the secretion of this hormone from the posterior pituitarygland. This is what causes severe dehydration when large amounts of alcohol are drunk. It also causes a high concentration of water in theurine and vomit and the intense thirst that goes along with a hangover.
Proclivity to alcoholism may be partially genetic. Persons who have this proclivity may have an atypical biochemical response to alcohol, although this is disputed.
Alcoholism can lead to malnutrition because it can alter digestion and the metabolism of most nutrients. Severe thiamine deficiency is common in alcoholism due to deficiency of folate, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and selenium ; this can lead to Korsakoff’s syndrome.Alcoholism is also associated with a type of dementia called Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, which is caused by a deficiency in thiamine (vitamin B1).
Muscle cramps, nausea, loss of appetite, nerve disorders, and depression are common symptoms of alcoholism. Osteoporosis and bone fractures may occur due to deficiency of vitamin D.
One study found that men who drank moderate amounts of alcohol three or more times a week were up to 35% less likely to have a heart attack than non-drinkers, and men who increased their alcohol consumption by one drink per day over the 12 years of the study had a 22% lower risk of heart attack.
Daily intake of one or two units of alcohol (a half or full standard glass of wine) is associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease in men over 40, and in women who have been through menopause.[ However, getting drunk one or more times per month put women at a significantly increased risk of heart attack, negating alcohol’s potential protective effect.
Increased longevity due to alcohol consumption is almost entirely the result of a reduced rate of coronary heart disease.
Excessive drinking has been linked to dementia; it is estimated that 10% to 24% of dementia cases are caused by alcohol consumption, with women being at greater risk than men.
Alcoholism is associated with a type of dementia called Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, which is caused by a deficiency in thiamine (vitamin B1).
In people aged 55 or older, daily light-to-moderate drinking (one to three drinks) was associated with a 42% reduction in the probability of developing dementia and a 70% reduction in risk of vascular dementia. The researchers suggest that alcohol may stimulate the release ofacetylcholine in the hippocampus area of the brain.Cancer
Alcohol consumption has been linked with seven types of cancer: mouth cancer, pharyngeal cancer, oesophageal cancer, laryngeal cancer,breast cancer, bowel cancer and liver cancer.[ Heavy drinkers are more likely to develop liver cancer due to cirrhosis of the liver.
The risk of developing cancer increases even with consumption of as little as three units of alcohol (one pint of lager or a large glass of wine) a day.
A global study found that 3.6% of all cancer cases worldwide are caused by drinking alcohol, resulting in 3.5% of all global cancer deaths.A study in the United Kingdom found that alcohol causes about 6% of cancer deaths in the UK (9,000 deaths per year). A study in Chinafound that alcohol causes about 4.40% of all cancer deaths and 3.63% of all cancer incidences. For both men and women, the consumption of two or more drinks daily increases the risk of pancreatic cancer by 22%.
Women who regularly consume low to moderate amounts of alcohol have an increased risk of cancer of the upper digestive tract, rectum, liver, and breast.
Red wine contains resveratrol, which has some anti-cancer effect. However, based on studies done so far, there is no strong evidence that red wine protects against cancer in humans.Diabetes
Daily consumption of a small amount of pure alcohol by older women may slow or prevent the onset of diabetes by lowering the level of blood glucose. However, the researchers caution that the study used pure alcohol and that alcoholic beverages contain additives, including sugar, which would negate this effect.
People with diabetes should avoid sugary drinks such as dessert wines and liqueurs.
A study found that lifelong abstainers were 2.36 times more likely to suffer a stroke than those who regularly drank a moderate amount of alcohol beverages. Heavy drinkers were 2.88 times more likely to suffer a stroke than moderate drinkers.
A report of the United States Centers for Disease Control estimated that medium and high consumption of alcohol led to 75,754 deaths in the U.S. in 2001. Low consumption of alcohol had some beneficial effects, so a net 59,180 deaths were attributed to alcohol.
In the United Kingdom, heavy drinking is blamed for about 33,000 deaths a year.
A study in Sweden found that 29% to 44% of “unnatural” deaths (those not caused by illness) were related to alcohol. The causes of death included murder, suicide, falls, traffic accidents, asphyxia, and intoxication.
A global study found that 3.6% of all cancer cases worldwide are caused by alcohol drinking, resulting in 3.5% of all global cancer deaths. A study in the United Kingdom found that alcohol causes about 6% of cancer deaths in the UK (9,000 deaths per year).
Alcohol expectations are beliefs and attitudes that people have about the effects they will experience when drinking alcoholic beverages. They are largely beliefs about alcohol’s effects on a person’s behaviors, abilities, and emotions. Some people believe that if alcohol expectations can be changed, then alcohol abuse might be reduced.
The phenomenon of alcohol expectations recognizes that intoxication has real physiological consequences that alter a drinker’s perception of space and time, reduce psychomotor skills, and disrupt equilibrium. The manner and degree to which alcohol expectations interact with the physiological effects of intoxication, resulting in specific behaviors, is unclear.
A single study found, if a society believes that intoxication leads to sexual behavior, rowdy behavior, or ag
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